What can I use?
The University of California encourages respect for the copyrights of content creators, and the thoughtful and permissible use of copyrighted materials by the public in accordance with U.S. copyright law.
Because the boundaries can be difficult to navigate, this site offers guidance for remaining within the bounds of fair use in teaching, as well as steps for obtaining the proper permissions.
Determining a work's copyright status
The chart below is intended as a guide to help you determine the status of a work and whether permission is needed. You can consult the pages on the left for more in-depth explanations.
|Does your use of the work qualify as Fair Use?|
|Four Factors of Fair Use:||Fair use is more likely when:|
|Purpose of your use||
|Nature of the copyrighted work to be used||
Work is publishedWork is factual or non-fiction
|Amount of the copyrighted work to be used||
Small excerpt or clipNot the core of the work being used
|Effect your use will have on the market value of the copyrighted work||
Only a few copies madeLittle impact on reasonable markets for the work
|Is the work protected by copyright?|
|Work might not be protected by © in the US if it is:||Example works:|
|Facts, ideas, or short phrases||
Newtonian physics formulae
Concept for a storyBook titles
|Older works in the public domain because of copyright expiration or formalities||
Early silent films
Mozart sheet music“A Tale of Two Cities”
|Federal government works||
Official NASA photos
CIA FactbookUSGS-authored maps
|Do you have permission to use the work?|
|Creative Commons or other public licenses||Ask for permission|
|Owner provides advanced, blanket permission for the work to be used.||If you need permission and there's no blanket license, you can try to contact the copyright owner.|